Introduction of Reference Models for Digital Manufacturing Platforms

Industry 4.0 can generate new business models and increase the efficiency of manufacturing processes by making use of relevant disruptive technologies to enable autonomous communications among industrial devices distributed throughout a factory and on the internet. Some examples include smart manufacturing, cyber-physical production systems, cloud manufacturing, and social manufacturing.

Reference models represent a common structure and language to describe and specify system architectures and, therefore, are beneficial to promoting common understanding and system interoperability. Few selected reference models and projects which are more popular are as listed below:

  • Reference Architecture Model for Industrie 4.0 (RAMI 4.0)
  • Industrial Internet Integrated Reference Model (I3RM)
  • Zero Defect Manufacturing Platform (ZDMP)
  • Computer Integrated Manufacturing Open System Architecture (CIMOSA)
  • Smart Grid Architecture Model (SGAM)
  • National Intelligent Manufacturing System Architecture (IMSA)
  • Industrial Internet Reference Architecture (IIRA)
  • Open Connectivity Unified Architecture (OPC UA)

The details can be found in the article

The following are the pictures of reference architectures that could be helpful for you. The details can be found on the corresponding websites to know more and use them for implementation.

Reference Architecture Model for Industrie 4.0 (RAMI 4.0)

RAMI 4.0 is a three-dimensional map showing the most important aspects of Industrie 4.0. It ensures that all participants involved share a common perspective and develop a common understanding.

Industrial Internet Integrated Reference Model (I3RM)

The integrated Information Infrastructure Reference Model (I3RM) was proposed for digital manufacturing platforms. This model was created by combining different reference models to support the architecture of digital manufacturing platforms in practical use cases.

Zero Defect Manufacturing Platform (ZDMP)

ZDMP aims at providing an extendable platform for supporting factories with a high interoperability level to cope with the concept of connected factories to reach the zero defects goal. In this context, ZDMP will allow end-users to connect their systems (i.e. MES and ERP Systems) to benefit from the features of the platform. These benefits include products and production quality assurance among others.

Mapping of Zero Defect Manufacturing Platform (ZDMP) high-level architecture to the four-tier architecture pattern.

Computer Integrated Manufacturing Open System Architecture (CIMOSA)

CIMOSA is an event-driven approach to model enterprise processes in an integrated computerized framework. The main goal of CIMOSA is to support the process-oriented modelling of manufacturing enterprises and to provide execution support for the operation of enterprise systems based on those models. The emphasis in CIMOSA is on modelling support for business users rather than for modelling specialists.

Smart Grid Architecture Model (SGAM)

The Smart Grid architecture is a combination of various hardware devices, management and reporting software tools that are combined within an ICT infrastructure.

Intelligent Manufacturing System Architecture (IMSA)

IMSA is basically a guideline for the construction of standards to facilitate the interconnection of manufacturing processes since this interconnection and interoperability are regarded as the key drivers to materialising the intelligent manufacturing concept.

Industrial Internet Reference Architecture (IIRA)

The IIRA addresses the need for a common architecture framework to develop interoperable IIoT systems for diverse applications across a broad spectrum of industry verticals in the public and private sectors to achieve the true promise of IIoT.

Open Connectivity Unified Architecture (OPC UA)

The OPC Unified Architecture (UA), released in 2008, is a platform-independent service-oriented architecture that integrates all the functionality of the individual OPC Classic specifications into one extensible framework.

OPC UA is a very important architecture that can be used to connect all machines to Manufacturing Execution System and IIOT systems.

The above diagram shows the scope of OPC UA within the Enterprise. The connectivity between MES, ERP, HMI, SCADA, Devices, and other Cloud Applications.